It is well known safe drinking water is essential for healthy living. The quality of water, whether used for drinking, domestic purposes, food production has an important impact on health.
Poor water quality can cause disease outbreaks and it can contribute to background rates of disease manifesting themselves on different time scales. Initiatives to manage the safety of water do not only support public health, but often promote socioeconomic development and well-being as well.
Water quality testing is important because it identifies contaminants and prevents water-borne diseases. Essentially, water quality testing makes sure that water is safe and meets local and international water standards.
Testing procedures: pH, hardness, presence of a selected group of chemical parameters, biocides, highly toxic chemicals.
pH is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration. It is an indicator of relative acidity or alkalinity of water. Values of 9.5 and above indicate high alkalinity while values of 3 and below indicate acidity. Low pH values help in effective chlorination but cause problems with corrosion. Values below 4 generally do not support living organisms in the marine environment. Drinking water should have a pH between 6.5 and 8.5. Harbour basin water can vary between 6 and 9.
A TDS meter indicates the total dissolved solids (TDS) of a solution, i.e. the concentration of dissolved solid particles.
Dissolved ionized solids, such as salts and minerals, increase the electrical conductivity (EC) of a solution. Because it is a volume measure of ionized solids, EC can be used to estimate TDS. Dissolved organic solids, such as sugar, and microscopic solid particles, such as colloids, do not significantly affect the conductivity of a solution, and are not taken into account.
TDS: TDS meters display the TDS in parts per million (ppm) | 1 ppm indicates 1 milligram of dissolved solids per kilogram of water.
Fresh water: TDS = 500 ppm
Brackish water: TDS = 500 – 30,000 ppm
Saline water: TDS = 30,000 – 40,000 ppm